Our team consists of highly qualified eye care practitioners with expertise in diagnosing and treating a wide range of eye conditions. Much of our work involves accurately distinguishing between different conditions that may initially present similar symptoms. Whether you require a routine eye exam or have a specific concern affecting your vision or daily activities, we are here to provide assistance.

While many eye conditions are not severe, some may indicate underlying issues of greater concern. With the help of advanced technology, our optometrists can detect changes early and initiate suitable treatment to protect your vision and maintain optimal eye health.

Some of the most common eye conditions that our optometrists see include: 


Conjunctivitis, commonly known as pink eye, can be caused by allergens like animals or pollen, bacteria, or viruses. It can result in swelling and redness of the inner eyelid and the white part of the eye. Symptoms may include itching, pain, and a sticky discharge that can cause eyelashes to stick together.

Pink eye is a frequently occurring condition, and certain types are highly contagious. To prevent its spread, it is important to frequently wash your hands and avoid sharing items such as sunglasses, towels, or makeup. Fortunately, many cases of pink eye will resolve on their own, but certain types may require treatment from an optometrist.

Flashes and Floaters

Floaters are tiny dark shapes that drift through your field of vision, resembling spots, threads, wavy lines, or even small cobwebs. Flashes, on the other hand, manifest as bright lights in your visual field, resembling streaks of light, camera flashes, or shooting stars. Many individuals experience occasional floaters and flashes, particularly as they age, and these typically do not require treatment. However, in some cases, they can indicate a more serious eye condition. If you observe new floaters or flashes that emerge suddenly or persist, it is crucial to reach out to your optometrist for further evaluation and care.


Glaucoma encompasses a group of eye diseases that gradually impair vision and can eventually lead to blindness by damaging the cells in the optic nerve, which is responsible for transmitting visual information from the eye to the brain. Glaucoma predominantly affects individuals aged 60 and above, and in the early stages, it typically presents no noticeable symptoms, resulting in many people being unaware of their condition. 

As the disease progresses, vision loss occurs gradually, often starting with a decreased ability to see objects in the peripheral vision. Without treatment, glaucoma can eventually lead to blindness. While a complete cure for glaucoma is currently unavailable, early intervention can often prevent further damage and safeguard vision through the use of eye drops, medications, or surgical procedures.

The only definitive way to diagnose glaucoma is by undergoing a comprehensive dilated eye examination conducted by an experienced optometrist. This examination allows for a thorough assessment of the condition and enables timely intervention to protect your vision. To learn more about glaucoma, please visit this page.



A cataract is a common cause of vision loss, characterized by a cloudy area in the lens of the eye. It is prevalent in individuals aged over 80 years and those exposed to factors such as harmful UV rays, smoking, or diabetes. Initially, there may be no noticeable symptoms, but over time, vision can become blurry, hazy, and less colourful, making activities like reading difficult. Thankfully, cataracts can often be effectively treated through surgery, which may involve the implantation of an artificial lens. Optometrists can detect early signs of cataracts during a comprehensive eye examination. To learn more about cataracts, click here.

Age-Related Macular Degeneration

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is an eye disease that affects the central vision by damaging the macula, the central part of the retina responsible for sharp vision. Common among individuals over 65 years old, AMD can cause blurred central vision, making it challenging to recognize faces, read, or drive. While it does not lead to complete blindness, early detection through regular eye exams is crucial. Treatment options, such as supplements, can help slow down the progression of AMD. To learn more about macular degeneration, please click here.

Diabetic Retinopathy

Diabetic retinopathy is an eye condition that affects individuals with diabetes and can result in vision loss and blindness. It damages the blood vessels in the retina, the light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye. Regular comprehensive dilated eye exams are essential for individuals with diabetes, as early stages of diabetic retinopathy may not exhibit noticeable symptoms. Managing diabetes through physical activity, a healthy diet, and medication can help prevent or delay vision loss. Advanced cases may require laser treatment or surgery.

Colour Impairment

Colour impairment, also known as colour blindness, causes individuals to perceive colours differently from others. The most common type involves difficulties distinguishing between red and green, while other types may affect the differentiation between blue and yellow. Some individuals with colour impairment may not perceive colour at all. While there is no complete cure, most people with colour impairment can adapt and perform daily activities without major issues. Optometrists can prescribe customised glasses or contact lenses to improve vision if necessary.

Pterygium (Fleshy Growth)

Pterygium is a triangular fleshy growth of tissue that occurs in the corner of the eye. It typically develops due to excessive exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light and is more common among individuals living in sunny areas or engaging in outdoor activities. Although it grows slowly, it can eventually cover a significant portion of the eye, leading to vision impairment and symptoms of dry eyes, such as burning, itching, or excessive tearing. In some cases, surgical removal of the pterygium may be necessary.

Dry Eyes

Dry eyes occur when the eyes do not produce enough tears or when the tears do not function properly, resulting in discomfort and, in some cases, vision problems. Fortunately, there are various ways to maintain eye health and alleviate discomfort associated with dry eyes. For more information on dry eyes, please visit our Dry Eyes page.

Refractive Errors

Refractive errors are vision problems caused by the eye's shape hindering light from focusing directly on the back of the eye. This leads to blurry vision and other visual issues, including near-sightedness, far-sightedness, and lazy eye.

To read more about the different types of refractive errors and how they can be diagnosed and managed by your optometrist, visit our Refractive Errors page here.

Retinal Detachment

Retinal detachment occurs when the retina, the light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye, becomes separated from its normal position. Symptoms may not always be apparent, but they can include a decrease in clarity of vision and sudden changes such as the appearance of floaters or flashes of light. Immediate medical attention is necessary if retinal detachment is suspected. Other symptoms include:

  • A lot of new floaters (small dark spots or squiggly lines that float across your vision)
  • Flashes of light in one eye or both eyes
  • A dark shadow or “curtain” on the sides or in the middle of your field of vision

Retinal detachment is a medical emergency. If you have symptoms of a detached retina, it’s important to contact your optometrist or the emergency room right away.

Kosmac & Clemens Optometrists

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